Okay, I have been slacking on the blog, granted with some excuses. I turned in my manuscript (on time) December 5th. All in all, I feel pretty pleased with the revision of my 2013 dissertation. Fingers crossed, it will be published around July of this year as the Soldier’s Life: Martial Virtues and Manly Romanitas in the early Byzantine Empire. It includes two stand-alone chapters on the fifth-century East and West that never made it into the original thesis and I reworked all the chapters. It represents major revision, and a bit different from the original thesis, in that it looks a bit more deeply at the concept of Romanitas.
I have also been researching for my upcoming class at Queensland University, Age of Crusades. Having spent much of the past ten years studying developments from the fourth to the seventh centuries this process has entailed a bit of refreshing on the books read as a graduate student in San Diego from 2000 to 2003. In order to shape my lectures I also created a twitter account @agecrusades, and have been tweeting my notes, visuals, and articles that I have found interesting. Re-reading Bynum’s seminal Holy Feast and Fast and Giles Constables’s Twelfth-century Reformation after ten plus years, have been highlights.
I am using John Cott’s Europe’s Long Twelfth Century as a class text, since it is a fluid read and touches on many important themes that we will be exploring.
Unlike the previous two year, so far no plans to attend any conferences this year…since I will be pushing for my book to be out and available for IMC Leeds in July…..it is being published by a new Leeds based press.
I also am hoping start my Procopius book sometime this year….. something in the same vein as Penelope Buckley’s fine study on Anna Komnene. With three published articles on Procopius, it is high time to get my a** in gear.
To end today’s blog here is a ‘masculine’ lexicon from my thesis that I may be updating for the book…if there is space. Some day I hope to do something far larger.
ἀνδρεία–(and cognates): manliness, bravery, courage. Aristotle, Politics 1277b20 (Aristotle maintains that ἀνδρεία and restraint differed in a man and a woman. In fact, a man would seem cowardly if he were only as ἀνδρειος as an ἀνδρεία woman). Eudemian Ethics 1228a26-30a37 (Aristotle argues that ἀνδρεία was an attribute of a man whose actions demonstrate a balance between rashness and fear). Eunapius, frag. 3.18 (Julian recognises that ἀνδρεία needed to be combined with other less martial virtues to make a good leader). Frag. 68 (Eunapius stresses the importance of promoting the ἀνδρεíον of the Roman emperor when making murals describing the destruction of foreign peoples). Eusebius, HE 1.4.2 (Christians receive praise for outdoing their pagan rivals in ἀρετης ἀνδρεία). HE 6.41.16 (A martyr, the Roman soldier Besas, is called the ἀνδρειότατος soldier of God). HE 8.6.1 (The author contends that the ἀνδρεία of the martyrs could be compared with the courage of any Greek or barbarian). Hippocrates, Airs, Waters, Places 23 (The treatise suggests that “harsh” lands contribute to peoples development of endurance and ἀνδρεῖαι). Julian, Letter to Alypius 404 (Julian avers that the most virtuous of men combined gentleness and restraint with ἀνδρεία and force). Libanius, Or. 18.209 (Libanius comments that Constantius II drained the ἀνδριαν of the Roman soldiers). Menander, Second Treatise 373, (Menander suggests that ἀρεταὶ was made up of four vital virtues: ἀνδρεία, δικαιοσύνη, σωϕροσύνη, φρόνησις). Procopius, Wars 5.1.27 (Procopius suggests that Theoderic’s combination of ἀνδρίας and wisdom allowed him to protect Italy from barbarian invaders). Wars 5.2.12 (One faction of Goths contend that ἀνδρίας was far removed from a literary education). Wars 5.11.20-1 (Vitigis proclaims that the title of the coward, fittingly applied, has saved many, while the reputation for ἀνδρείας, which some men have gained at the wrong time, has afterward led them to defeat). Wars 5.20.9-10 (Gothic ambassador explains to the Italians and the Byzantines that rashness was different from ἀνδρεία). Wars 6.26.13 (Vitigis calls on the Goths to endure ἀνδρείως). Wars 7.40.9 (Procopius eulogises the Byzantine general Germanus by calling him an ἀνηρ ἀνδρεῖός). Wars 8.3.7 (In Procopius’ telling, after all of their male soldiers died in a previous battle, the Amazons were still able to make display of ἀνδρεῖα). Sozomen, HE 1.13.6 (Sozomen describes the holy man Anthony as gentle, prudent and ἀνδρεῖος). HE 1.12.1(Sozomen praised all ascetics for their ability to ἀνδρείως subjugate their passions). HE 6.21 (Sozomen praises bishops who ἀνδρείως opposed the emperor when he interfered in Church affairs). HE 6.24.6 (Sozomen described the ἀνδρείως way that Ambrose served as bishop). Thucydides, Peloponnesian War 2.39.1 (Pericles argues that, from childhood, Athenian boys were educated to pursue τό ἀνδρεῖoν). 2.39.4 (Pericles suggests that the Athenians’ ἀνδρείας derived more from their way of life than compulsion of laws). Zosimus, New History 3.3.5 (Zosimus reveals that Julian’s soldiers admired him for his ἀνδρείον in battle).
ἀπόλεμος–unwarlike, unfit for war. Priscus, frag. 1.3 (Eunapius describes Theodosius II as ἀπόλεμος). Procopius, Wars 5.3.1 (Procopius criticises Theodahad for being ἀπολελειμμένος and taking no part in the active life).
ἀρετή–excellence, virtue, manhood, valour, prowess, goodness. Athanasius, Life of Anthony 1.5 (Devil reminds Anthony of the difficult path to ἀρετή). Eunapius, frag. 3.18 (Eunapius concludes that justice combined with authority was like a fountainhead of ἀρετῶν, which made even those far away manageable and obedient). frag. 44.3 (Eunapius describes Sebastianus as an exemplar of virtue whose ἀρετή matched that of the ancient Roman heroes). Libanius, Or. 18.230 (Libanius argues that if you force a naturally ἀρετῆς man to live among drunken revelry, his goodness deserts him and he learns these vices instead of the glories of the honourable). Menander, Second Treatise 373 (Menander suggests that ἀρεταὶ was made up of four vital virtues: ἀνδρεία, δικαιοσύνη, σωϕροσύνη, φρόνησις). Procopius, Wars 5.18.16 (In a skirmish outside of Rome, Belisarius and his men prove their superior ἀρετή). Wars 5.20.11 (Gothic emissary warns Belisarius that when rashness takes possession of a man it brings him into danger with discredit, but bravery bestows upon him an adequate prize in a reputation for ἀρετῆς). Wars 5.28.9 (Belisarius explains to his men that with ἀρετή they could overcome the Goths’ superior numbers). Wars 7.24.1-26 (Belisarius and his soldiers’ ἀρετή and courage helped them to recapture Rome from the Goths). Wars 8.29.22-23 (Byzantine soldiers make a display of ἀρετῆς). Wars 8.30.1(In a set speech, Narses claims that his army far out-stripped Totila’s force in ἀρετῆ). Wars 8.32.11 (Romans and their barbarian allies show a common zeal and ἀρετῆ at the battle of Busto Gallorum). Wars 8.35.22 (Byzantine soldiers are motivated purely to make displays of ἀρετῶντες). Theophylact, History 3.13.4 (Byzantine soldiers are told that battle functions as a test of ἀρετῆς and vice). Thucydides, Peloponnesian War 2.45 (Thucydides suggests that γυναικείας ἀρετῆς are best displayed by women who are hidden away from the public arena).
ἄρρην–masculine, manly, strong. Eunapius, frag. 3.58.1 (Describes Valentinian II as ἀρρενωπὸν). Procopius, Wars 5.2.3. (Procopius describes Amalasuintha as displaying very much an ἀρρενωπὸν nature). Wars 8.3.7 (According to Procopius, the death of all their male soldiers forced the Amazons to put on ἀρρενωπὸν). Theophylact, History 2.14.1 (Veteran soldier claims that courageous deeds proves to soldiers that their hearts are ἄρρενας like their bodies). History 3.13.4 (Byzantine soldiers are told that the coming battle will either reveal their effeminate cowardice or their ἀρρενωπὸν courage). Zosimus, New History 4.23-4 (Zosimus suggests that under the guidance of Sebastianus the Roman soldiers had achieved ἀρρενωπὸν out of effeminacy).
ἀσφαλής–firm, steadfast, unfailing. Procopius, Wars 5.1.27 (Theoderic ἀσφαλῶς protected Italy from the barbarians). Wars 7.1.14 (Procopius describes Belisarius as ἀσφαλεῖ without taking unnecessary risks in battle).
βέβαιος–firm, steadfast, trusty, sure, safe. Procopius, Wars 5.7.11 (Procopius criticises Theodahad for his lack of a βέβαιον mind).
γυναικεῖος–(and cognates): of or belonging to a woman, womanish, effeminate. Procopius, Wars 5.2.21 (Procopius “compliments” Amalasuintha for not acting γυνὴ). Wars 6.14.11 (The Heruls accuse their king, Rodolphus, of being soft and γυναιkώδη, which causes him to make a rash attack). Zosimus, New History 4.23 (Zosimus criticises Valens’ army, claiming that under the emperor’s watch, lax discipline and flawed training had led the army to be prepared only for retreat and for γύναι and unworthy desires).
δειλία–(and cognates): cowardice, timidity. Aristotle, Politics 1277b20 (Aristotle maintained that a man would seem δειλός if he were only as ἀνδρειος as an ἀνδρεία woman). Priscus, frag. 1.3 (Priscus accuses the Emperor Theodosius II of living a life of δειλία). Procopius, Wars 5.2.12 (A Gothic faction argues that a Roman literary education leads to δειλὸν). Wars 5.11.20-1 (Vitigis suggests that the title of δειλίας, fittingly applied, has saved many, while the reputation for courage, led to often to disaster). Wars 8.32.29 (Procopius suggests that Totila’s inglorious death in battle had occurred because a deity had smote him with δειλίαν). Theophylact, History 3.13.4 (Byzantine soldiers are told that the coming battle will either reveal their effeminate δειλίας or their manly bravery).
δραστήριος–energetic, active, vigorous. Procopius, Wars 5.3.1 (Procopius describes Theodahad as not δραστήριος). Wars 6.13.16 (Procopius declares that the eunuch Narses was δραστήριος in comparison to the typical eunuch). Wars 7.2.7 (Procopius describes Totila as δραστήριος). Wars 7.8.18 (Goths ask Totila to spare a Gothic soldier accused of rape because he was δραστήριος. Totila executes the soldier anyway).
ἡδονή–pleasure, luxury, effeminacy. Athanasius, Life of Anthony 1.5 (The Devil attempts to convince Anthony to give up his pursuit of asceticism by reminding him of his previous ἡδονήν life). Eunapius, frag. 55 (Eunapius maintains that the well-to-do have an inclination to τὴν ἡδονήν). Herodian, BH 1.3.1 (Herodian suggests that young men are easily led into a life of ἡδονὰς).
ἡρωϊκός–(and cognates): for heroes, heroic. Olympiodorus, frag. 40 (Olympiodorus describes both the Goth Saras and the Roman Boniface as ἀνὴρ ἡρωϊκός). Procopius, Wars 8.35.20-38. (Procopius declares that the Gothic king Teïas’ noble death in battle compared to those ήρώων of legend).
θῆλυς–female sex, belonging to a woman. Procopius, Wars 3.3.9-16 (Procopius suggests that Valentinian III’s θηλυνομένην education led to the losses of Roman territory in North Africa to the Vandals). Zosimus, New History 4.23-4 (Zosimus suggests that the Eastern Roman army had attained manliness out of θήλεος). Theophylact, History 3.13.4 (Byzantine soldiers are told that the coming battle will either reveal their θηλυπρεπὲς cowardice or their manly bravery).
θράσoς–in a positive sense courage, confidence, in a negative sense over-boldness, rashness. Aristotle, Eudemian Ethics 1228a26-30a37 (Aristotle argues that ἀνδρεία was the attribute of a man whose actions demonstrate a balance between θράσoς and fear). Athanasius, Life of Anthony 1.6 (Anthony faces the Devil and hordes of demons with καταθαῥήσας). Procopius, Wars (Theodahad enters into a state that Procopius describes as the antithesis of θράσος). Wars 5.17.18 (Outside the gates of Rome Belisarius and his men hope to make a display of their own θάρσους). Wars 5.20.11 (Gothic envoy tells Belisarius that θάρσος is different from courage ἀνδρεία, because it often leads to disaster in battle). Wars 8.23.27 (Gothic commander suggests that θάρσoς is related to a lack of fear). Thucydides, Peloponnesian War 2.11.3 (Pericles suggests that θράσoς means ignorance).
κακία–badness, baseness, cowardice, vice. Libanius, Or. 18.65 (Libanius describes Roman army before Julian took command as by nature κακοὺς. He wonders if the κακία of their previous commanders was responsible). Priscus, frag. 11.2. 441 (A Greek serving in Hun’s army remarks that the κακία of the Eastern Roman generals had endangered the demilitarised segment of the Roman population). Theophylact, History 3.13.4 (Byzantine soldiers are told that battle functions as a test of virtue and κακίας).
καρτερός–strong, staunch, brave. Eusebius, HE 1.4.7 9 (Christians receive praise for embracing the καρτερία life).
κράτος–strength, mastery, force, violence. Eunapius, frag. 3.18 (According to Eunapius, Julian recognised that the martial virtue of κράτος needed to be combined with justice to make a good leader).
μαλακία–(and cognates): weakness, softness, tenderness: of men, effeminacy, weakness. Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander 2.7.5 (Alexander tells his army that the most warlike races of Europe, will be facing the most indolent and μαλκώτατα peoples of Asia). Herodotus, Histories 9.122 (Cyrus chides his colleagues to abandon their thoughts of further conquest in Asia, warning that μαλακῶν countries breed μαλακοὺς men). Procopius, Wars 1.18.13 (Byzantine troops accuse Belisarius of μαλθακος, which causes him to launch a rash attack). Wars 3.9.1 (Procopius maintains that the Vandal king Hilderich’s μαλθακός in war forced him to rely on his nephew to fight his battles). Wars 6.14.11 (The Heruls accuse their king, Rodolphus, of being μαλθακόν and womanlike). Thucydides, Peloponnesian War 2.40.1 (Pericles describes the Athenians as lovers of beauty, yet with no extravagance, and lovers of wisdom, yet without μαλακίαs).
Πολεμικός–warlike. Eunapius, frag. 44.3 (Eunapius explains that the Emperor Valens was in search of πολεμικῶν soldiers to improve his army). Julian, Against the Galileans 138b (Julian proposed that only the ancient Hellenes and Romans were able to combine an unyielding πολεμικός nature with an inclination for the political life).
προθῡμία–fighting-spirit, zeal, readiness. Athanasius, Life of Anthony 1.13 (The biographer describes Anthony as heading into the desert to battle the Devil and hordes of demons with προθυμία). Procopius, Wars 1.18.24 (Byzantine soldiers claim that Belisarius’ fear of attacking the enemy had destroyed their προθυμίας). Wars 8.32.11 (Romans and “barbarian allies” show a common προθυμία and virtue that helps lead them to victory over the Goths at the battle of Busto Gallorum). Socrates, HE 3.1 (Socrates praises the Emperor Julian for his ability to infuse προθυμία into the Roman soldiers).
ῤαθυμία–carelessness, laziness, effeminacy. Eunapius, frag. 55 (Eunapius submits that the well-to-do have an inclination to ῥαθυμíαν). Hippocrates, Airs, Waters, Places 23 (Treatise suggests that “fertile” lands contribute to Eastern peoples’ slackness and propensity towards ῤαθυμίαι). Justinian, Nov. 30.11 (The Novel blamed the loss of the Western provinces partly on the ῤαθυμία of the Western emperors). Procopius, Wars 6.26.13 (Fearing that their opponents might think the Goths had succumbed to ῤαθυμία, Vitigis calls on the Goths starving in Auximum and Faesulae to endure manfully).
ῥώμη–might. Eunapius, frag. 3.18 (The Emperor Julian recognised that courage, ῥώμη, and strength played a vital role on the battlefield, he concluded that δικαιοσύνη combined with authority was like a fountainhead of virtues which made even those far away manageable and obedient). frag. 68 (Eunapius argues that “appropriate” political murals promoted the manliness of the emperor and the ῥώμην of his soldiers). Julian, Letter to Alypius 404 (Julian claims that the most virtuous of men combined gentleness and restraint with courage and ῥώμη).
σωφροσύνη–temperance, restraint, self-control, temperance, chastity. Aristotle, Politics 1277b20 (Aristotle suggests that σωφροσύνη and ἀνδρεία differ in a man and a woman). Julian, Letter to Alypius 404 (Julian claims that the most virtuous of men combined gentleness and σωφροσύνην with courage and might). Libanius, Or. 18. 281 (Libanius proclaims that the emperor Julian was σωφρονέστερος than Hippolyctus). Menander, Second Treatise 373 (Menander suggests that ἀρεταὶ was made up of four vital virtues: ἀνδρεία, δικαιοσύνη, σωϕροσύνη, φρόνησις). Procopius, Wars 7.1.11 (Procopius praises Belisarius for his σωφροσύνης, which allowed him to remain monogamous). Wars 7.20.28 (According to Procopius, Totila’s protection of upper-class Roman women from violence won him great renown for σωφροσύνη).
τόλμα–(and cognates): courage to venture on a thing, daring, boldness. Procopius, Wars 5.2.13 (“Martial” Goths suggest that only training a young man in arms cultivates his τολμητήν). Wars 7.1.14 (Procopius praises Belisarius for being εὐτολμότατος without taking unnecessary risks). Wars 7.24.1 (Belisarius’ τόλμα helps him to recapture Rome from Totila). Wars 8.35.21 (The Goths’ starvation drives them to εὐτoλμίαν at the battle of Mons Lactarius). Theophylact, History 2.14.6 (A Byzantine soldier claims that part of the reason for Rome’s rise to supremacy was its men’s innate τολμητὰς). History, 3.13.4 (Byzantine soldiers are told that the coming battle will either reveal their effeminate cowardice or their manly εὐτολμίας).Thucydides, Peloponnesian War 3.74.2 (Thucydides praises the τολμηρῶς of a group of women who had joined a raging battle by dropping tiles from the rooftops onto their enemies. He labels this behaviour, however, as contrary to their “normal” nature).
τρῠφή–luxury, effeminacy. Eunapius, frag. 55 (Eunapius argues that to thrive the Empire must reject τρυφῂν and embrace war). Herodian, BH 1.6.1, 1.8.1 (The τρυφῆς life in Rome corrupts Commodus). Julian, Against the Galileans 138b (Julian suggests that the Persians and other “Eastern” peoples’ propensity for τρυφηλός leads to their tendency to be ruled by despots). Procopius, Wars 5.20.11 (Goth describes Italians’ life of τρυφερω under Gothic rule). Wars 3.3.9-16 (Procopius suggests that the Emperor Valentinian III had been educated in a τρυφην manner).
Φιλοπολεμος–warlike, lover of war. Eunapius, frag. 44.3 (Eunapius describes Sebastianus as a Φιλοπόλεμος). Themistius, Or. 4.54a (Themistius praises the Emperor Constantius II for being a Φιλοπόλεμος).
φόβος–timidity, fear, terror, fright. Aristotle, Eudemian Ethics 1228a26-30a37 (Aristotle proposes that ἀνδρεία was an attribute of a man whose actions demonstrated a balance between θράσoς and φόβος). Procopius, Wars 5.1.31 (Procopius praises Theoderic for being an object of φοβερὸς to all his enemies). Wars 5.2.13 (Martial Goths suggest that a military education frees young men from the φόβου inspired by teachers).
χειροήθης–submissive, obedient, tame. Julian, Against the Galilaens 138 (Julian suggests that the Persians and the majority of “Eastern barbarians” were χειροήθης).